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AFRICOM POSTURE STATEMENT: Ward Updates Congress on U.S. Africa Command
The commander of United States Africa Command outlined his plans for AFRICOM in testimony before the U.S. Congress on March 13, 2008, describing his goal of developing "persistent, sustained engagement" with African militaries and regional
The commander of United States Africa Command outlined his plans for AFRICOM in testimony before the U.S. Congress on March 13, 2008, describing his goal of developing "persistent, sustained engagement" with African militaries and regional organizations. William "Kip" Ward testified before the House Armed Services Committee alongside the commanders of U.S. Southern Command and U.S. European Command. By long-standing tradition, the U.S. Congress requires regional military commanders to appear in public hearings to deliver a "posture statement" on their region of the world. The March 13 hearing marked the first-ever posture statement for U.S. Africa Command, which is scheduled to assume responsibilities as a unified command in October. As part of his testimony, Ward submitted a 22-page written posture statement on AFRICOM, which was released by the committee in conjunction with the hearing. "AFRICOM will help develop capable militaries among our partner nations, and promote civilian control of the military through continued professionalization of African military forces," Ward said in his posture statement. Below is the full text of the U.S. Africa Command posture statement. Publicly released by the Committee on March 13, 2008 STATEMENT OF GENERAL WILLIAM E. WARD, USA COMMANDER, UNITED STATES AFRICA COMMAND BEFORE THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE ON 13 MARCH 2008 HOUSE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE - WRITTEN STATEMENT
OUTLINE INTRODUCTION STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT Political Geography Demographic Trends and Crime Transnational Terrorism Regional Issues AFRICOM COMMAND STRATEGY Strategic Approach AFRICOM Support to the Global War on Terror Regional War on Terror Theater Security Cooperation Security Cooperation Activities PROGRESS TOWARDS ESTABLISHMENT AS A UNIFIED COMMAND Key Missions Mission Transfer and Staff Training Building the Interagency Team Component Commands THEATER INVESTMENT NEEDS Enhancing AFRICOM's Mission Command Stationing Theater Infrastructure Strategic and Tactical Mobility Pre-positioned Equipment Quality of Life Programs INTRODUCTION It is my privilege as Commander to present to Congress the first ever United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) Posture Statement. This development in our Unified Command Plan structure signals a renewed focus on U.S. strategic imperatives for the African continent and its island nations. We are excited about this opportunity to enact the Department of Defense's (DoD) vision of a joint Command with significant interagency and intergovernmental involvement, which will become an effective multi-dimensional instrument in pursuit of our national interests and the shared interests of our global partners. AFRICOM was created to provide a strategic, holistic DoD approach to security on the African continent. Our past command organization did not facilitate an in-depth understanding of, or attention to, African security issues. Establishing AFRICOM will enable DoD expertise and capabilities to be better applied to Africa's unique security environment, which differs substantially from that of EUCOM, CENTOCOM or PACOM. Strengthening our security cooperation efforts and bolstering the capabilities of our African partners are key ways of achieving our African security objectives. Through persistent, sustained engagement focused on building partner security capacity, supporting humanitarian assistance efforts, and providing crisis response, AFRICOM will promote a stable and secure African environment in support of U.S. foreign and national security policy. On October 1, 2008, AFRICOM will assume mission responsibility as a Unified Command, and serve as the Department of Defense (DoD) lead for support to U.S. Government (USG) agencies and departments responsible for implementing U.S. foreign policy in Africa. AFRICOM is pioneering a new way for a Unified Command to fulfill its role in supporting the security interests of our nation. From inception, AFRICOM was intended to be a different kind of command designed to address the changing security challenges confronting the U.S. in the 21st Century. We are integrating interagency personnel into our structure to improve both the planning and execution of our duties. By incorporating interagency representatives into our structure, we will provide better informed and more effective support to initiatives led by civilian Departments and Agencies, such as the Department of State (DoS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Through persistent engagement with our African partners and integration of this kind of USG-wide expertise into our structure, AFRICOM will improve support to U.S. policy objectives in Africa. Our immediate task is to build the AFRICOM team and to prepare to assume the Africa missions currently conducted by other commands. We consider our African partners as part of our team building efforts; thus, we continue to invest the time and effort required to understand their needs and interests. By doing so, we can enable their work in support of their own security. As a new Unified Command, we look forward to supporting our interagency, international, and African partners as we work together to promote security in Africa. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT Africa presents a challenging strategic environment, but also ample opportunity to achieve positive change in the lives of millions of people. Political Geography AFRICOM's AOR covers more than 11.7 million square miles, accounting for 20 percent of the Earth's land mass. Africa's nations include approximately 900 million people, constituting 14.2 percent of the world's population. More than 400 ethnic groups live in Africa, speaking more than 2000 languages and dialects and practicing a wide variety of religious traditions. The issues currently impacting AFRICOM's AOR include terrorism, enduring conflicts, drug trafficking, territorial disputes, illegal immigration, and natural disasters. While rich in both human capital and mineral resources, many African states remain fragile due to corruption, endemic and pandemic health problems, historical ethnic animosities, and widespread poverty. Africa, according to the United Nations (UN), is the world's most impoverished continent, and contains 25 of its poorest nations. Highlighting the devastating economic impact of armed conflict, a recent Oxfam study states that conflict alone has cost the African continent over $300 billion between 1990 and 2005. Despite these problems, there are distinct signs of progress. Economic growth is at an eight-year high, and 20 African nations have registered growth for each of the past five years. Six major African wars have ended in the past six years, and more than 60 presidential-level democratic elections have taken place in the past four years. In 1990, Freedom House classified 24 sub-Saharan African countries as free or partly free. By 2007, that number had improved to 33. Additionally, an increasing number of African nations have made progress in developing peacekeeping capabilities. Today, 30 percent of UN peacekeeping forces are supplied by African nations, with total troop numbers totaling in the tens of thousands. Today more nations are free, peaceful, and prosperous than at any other point in history. These positive trends are found in Africa. In Africa, as is the case globally, there is a shared desire for security and stability. We will sustain this progress in AFRICOM's AOR through persistent engagement and a dedicated effort to build and strengthen our bonds with the nations of Africa. Through partnership, we will help develop their capability to pursue the security and stability necessary for a better future. Demographic Trends and Crime African demographic trends are troubling. Rapid population growth, particularly a disproportionate "youth bulge", will exceed governments' ability to provide basic goods, services, and jobs. This trend has already led to a large pool of undereducated and unemployed youth who present a potential source of social and political instability. Vast coastal areas provide havens for smuggling, human and drug trafficking, illegal immigration, piracy, oil bunkering, and poaching of fisheries. Piracy and theft are major concerns along the Gulf of Guinea coast--an area that stretches for nearly 2,000 nautical miles. Large-scale oil theft in the Niger Delta is a significant problem. Shipping ports, transit areas, harbors, oil production, and transshipment areas are largely unobserved, uncontrolled, and vulnerable to attacks by terrorist groups, criminal gangs, or separatist militias. Corruption and complicity at all levels of government only serve to exacerbate this problem. Transnational Terrorism Violent extremism is a source of instability affecting our AOR. AFRICOM will support partner nations in the fight against transnational terrorists who undermine friendly governments, recruit foreign fighters for combat operations in the Middle East, obtain terror funds through illegal activities, and conduct attacks against U.S. interests, and those of our partners. This is, in particular, an issue in the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa. The uncontrolled regions of the Trans-Sahara and the Horn of Africa offer sanctuary to Islamic extremist terrorists, smugglers of drugs and contraband, and insurgent groups. In Algiers on December 11th, 2007, Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), a self-declared Al-Qaeda affiliate, claimed responsibility for a vehicle-borne bomb attack against the UN facility housing the offices of the High Commission for Refugees and the UN Development Program. AQIM also claimed credit for a near-simultaneous attack against the Algerian Supreme Court and Algerian Constitutional Council, and is believed to be behind the December 24th attack that killed French tourists in Mauritania. We are seeing increased collaboration between Al-Qaeda and North African terrorist groups. Violent extremists here continue to coordinate activities and interact with networks in Europe, and there is evidence that North Africans are being recruited to serve as foreign fighters in Iraq. Regional Issues AFRICOM adopts a regional approach to this strategic environment, and our African partners have encouraged this viewpoint. We will concentrate and prioritize our activities in the five African Union (AU) designated regions: North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, and Southern Africa. In North Africa, broad expanses of uncontrolled areas remain havens for extremists, terrorists, and criminals. Current economic systems cannot meet the needs of a youthful and growing populace, and hinders the emergence of an economically independent middle class. Additionally, a rising percentage of Europe's oil and natural gas imports come from North Africa, tying European economic security to North African stability. Political instability in the Maghreb threatens overall regional stability, and is a threat to U.S. interests. West Africa is home to approximately 250 million people (more than a quarter of the continent's population) covering 15 countries aligned under the Economic Community of West African States. The region has experienced insurrection, coup d'etats, natural disasters, high crime rates, and pandemic disease. Leadership challenges and inadequate funding often pose serious obstacles to the development of capable indigenous security forces. The absence of credible maritime security capacity has led to the depletion of fisheries through illegal fishing, piracy, drug trafficking, damage to oil company platforms and property, and theft of oil. Meanwhile, land forces have difficulty securing large tracts of land, and this contributes to insecurity by providing safe havens for terrorists, smugglers, gangs, and warlords. Despite these difficulties, U.S. Department of Energy figures indicate that the Gulf of Guinea region supplies more than 15 percent of the hydrocarbons imported by the U.S., and by 2015 this region may supply more than 25 percent. In the next 10 years, the Gulf of Guinea is projected to provide the bulk of U.S. imports of sweet crude oil. In Central Africa, insurgency movements, political instability, and numerous rebel wars have caused massive human suffering as well as political and economic stagnation. Chad and, to a lesser extent, the Central African Republic, both have active rebel insurgency movements and continue to see spillover from the Darfur crisis in bordering Sudan. The conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remains an obstacle to lasting peace in the region. In spite of significant challenges, we are encouraged by the positive relationships we maintain with the military and civilian leadership in Central Africa. Covering an area the size of the continental U.S., East Africa is experiencing violence in Darfur and Somalia, tension along the Ethiopia/Eritrea border, and uncertainty in Kenya. Yet, even with the challenges facing East Africa, there have been positive developments. The international community continues to work with the Kenyan government to secure successful implementation of the recent political compromise, and a subsequent return to stability. Rwanda is recovering from the genocide of 1994, which had a profoundly destabilizing effect on the region. Additionally, we have a solid working relationship with the military and civilian leadership in the majority of East African states. Southern Africa is a region that is strategically critical to the U.S. South Africa's professional and capable military is contributing over 3,000 soldiers to UN and AU missions in Sudan, DRC, Burundi, the Comoros Islands, and along the Ethiopia/Eritrea border. However, economic and health problems continue to afflict the southern Africa region. Poor governance, hyperinflation, and refugee outflows from Zimbabwe present challenges to Southern African nations. While HIV/AIDS affects the entire continent, Southern Africa is the most afflicted region in the world, with HIV/AIDS infection rates averaging in the high 20 percent range. The security forces across Southern Africa are being compromised by HIV/AIDS, as their ability to conduct operations is reduced and key personnel are lost. AFRICOM COMMAND STRATEGY A peaceful and prosperous continent is clearly in the interests of the U.S, Africa, and the global community. AFRICOM is developing a theater strategy that supports our national objectives as specified in the National Security Strategy, the National Defense Strategy, and other USG policy documents. We are listening to our African and international partners, and seek to benefit from their experience and insight. In cooperation with our African partners, AFRICOM's theater strategy will embrace a new interagency paradigm to support and advance U.S. and African interests. Strategic Approach AFRICOM's theater strategy will be based on the principle of Active Security. Active Security is defined as a persistent and sustained level of effort oriented on security assistance programs that prevent conflict and foster continued dialogue and development. The goal of Active Security is to enable the work of Africans to marginalize the enemies of peace and prevent conflict, thereby enabling the growth of strong and just governments and legitimate institutions to support the development of civil societies. Societies require security to flourish, for security provides the foundation for political, diplomatic, and economic development, which is essential to building long-term stability. AFRICOM will contribute to this goal by employing a wide range of tools at its disposal--from conducting security cooperation activities to prosecuting combat operations--to promote security. AFRICOM's theater strategy will support broader national efforts, in coordination with other USG agencies, to: Confront transnational threats to security; Counter the threat posed by Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), illegal arms, and narcotics; Mitigate violent conflicts; Promote Stability, Security, and Reconstruction efforts; and, Turn the tide on HIV/AIDs and malaria. Strengthen democratic principles by fostering respect for the Rule of Law, civilian control of the military, and budget transparency; Foster the conditions that lead to a peaceful, stable, and economically strong Africa; Ultimately, AFRICOM will focus its effort on promoting the following theater objectives: African countries and organizations can provide for their own security and contribute to security on the continent; African governments and regional security organizations possess the capability to mitigate the threat of violent extremism; and, African countries maintain professional militaries responsive to civilian authorities and that respect the Rule of Law and international human rights norms. In support of vital national interests, AFRICOM's security goals and effects work to prevent attacks emanating from Africa against Americans, secure U.S. strategic access, and preserve unhindered movement along the AOR's lines of communication. To achieve these ends, AFRICOM's strategy of Active Security will focus on establishing and sustaining reliable partnerships while developing security partner capacity at the theater, regional, and state levels. AFRICOM will help develop capable militaries among our partner nations, and promote civilian control of the military through continued professionalization of African military forces. AFRICOM will strengthen regional security capacity, and promote the development of our African partner's deployment capabilities. When appropriate, AFRICOM will also provide support to USG and non-governmental organizations. As one example, healthcare is often at the forefront of the needs of emerging nations, and AFRICOM will consult with interagency partners to ensure that its medical civic affairs programs and activities are compatible with broader State Department, USAID, and international efforts. Collaborations lead to greater support for similar missions and demonstrate the grass-roots level value of AFRICOM and U.S. engagement in Africa. AFRICOM's strategy of Active Security guides the development of our support to a holistic interagency effort to meet the challenges facing Africa today. However, Africa requires an approach focused on more than just security. To that end, we recognize and support USG efforts to further strengthen and resource our interagency partners such as DoS, USAID, and others. These agencies have lead responsibility and are crucial to bringing a balanced team approach to capacity building--not only in Africa, but globally. AFRICOM Support to the Global War on Terror AFRICOM's number one theater-wide goal is to promote security and stability within its AOR. By strengthening our partners through capacity building efforts, we will deny terrorists freedom of action and access to resources, while diminishing the conditions that foster violent extremism. Regional War on Terror Operation ENDURING FREEDOM - TRANS-SAHARA (OEF-TS) is the Department of Defense contribution to the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP). OEF-TS strengthens counterterrorism and border security efforts by assisting the governments of nine nations that are trying to prevent terrorist groups from using their uncontrolled areas as safe havens. The increasing audacity and lethality of AQIM attacks, as well as its declared intent to target the U.S., France, Algeria, and their allies, highlights the vital role played by OEF-TS in containing and disrupting AQIM and other regional terrorist groups in North Africa. We will continue to work with the OEF-TS participating nations, our Embassy Country Teams, and DoS to enhance this program. Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) works with Horn of Africa governments to build local and regional capacity, support professionalization of militaries, and assist other U.S. government agencies in helping partner nations diminish the underlying conditions that extremists seek to exploit. Efforts here contribute to building a strong relationship between the U.S., the host nation, and other countries of the region. Camp Lemonnier and our enduring presence in the region will play a vital role in AFRICOM's future activities. Currently, CJTF-HOA conducts activities and security cooperation programs in Kenya, Southern Sudan, Djibouti, Yemen, Ethiopia, and the coastal waters of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean, and across existing unified command boundaries in Uganda, Tanzania, Mauritius, and the Comoros Islands in accordance with agreements with PACOM and EUCOM. CJTF-HOA focuses its operations, training, and humanitarian missions on helping nations in this region improve their capacity to combat terrorism, deny the safe havens and material assistance that support terrorist activity, and prepare for other challenges such as natural and manmade disasters. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and nuclear weapons-related capabilities or resources is perhaps the most fundamental threat to U.S. security and global stability. The nexus between terrorism and WMD proliferation is a grave threat to the U.S. and its vital national interests. The possibility of employment of WMD by non-state or rogue state actors is at the forefront of our war on terror concerns, and is an element of our OEF-TS and CJTF-HOA efforts. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) works with AFRICOM to cover the entire spectrum of this unique mission: Cooperative Threat Reduction programs, along with State Department non-proliferation initiatives, address the non-proliferation of known WMD; detection programs address counter-proliferation; and, DTRA's exercise programs address our consequence management responsibilities, thus reassuring our partners and allies regarding AFRICOM capabilities. Terrorist groups have professed their intent to acquire and employ WMD. AFRICOM will work closely with our interagency and African partners, as well as the international community, to ensure that this intent does not become reality. Theater Security Cooperation Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) programs remain the cornerstone of our strategy of Active Security and promote common security through persistent engagement. These programs build lasting relationships, promote common interests, and enhance partner capabilities for providing safe and secure environments. Cooperative security efforts provide for essential peacetime and contingency access and infrastructure, and improve information sharing. TSC programs are vital to AFRICOM's efforts in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. We must assist our partner nations develop their ability to protect civilian populaces, conduct disaster relief, and provide humanitarian assistance. Assisting our allies and partners in maturing their capabilities to conduct operations with well-trained, disciplined forces that respect human rights and the Rule of Law, helps mitigate the conditions that lead to conflict. Providing training and equipment through TSC prepares African forces to better address shared challenges, strengthens legitimate sovereign governments, and makes less likely any U.S. requirement to conduct operations directly. These programs require consistent, sustained investment. Security Cooperation Activities AFRICOM will implement security assistance programs in concert with U.S. Embassy Country Teams. Well-managed TSC efforts are essential to building the capacity of partner nations, thereby reducing the likelihood of problems developing into crises. International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Expanded IMET (E-IMET) are DoS foreign assistance programs that provide education and training opportunities for foreign military and civilian personnel and are critical to building long-term relationships. Officers and enlisted leaders who received U.S. IMET training fill key positions in many partner African nations. Today, for example, 11 of 14 serving General Officers in the Botswana Defense Force (BDF), as well as the BDF Command Sergeant Major, are U.S. IMET graduates. Similarly, IMET funding for Senegal allowed that country to host a regional seminar on Defense Resource Management and conduct a Military Justice Seminar. The IMET program has also contributed to the excellent reputation the Senegalese military has earned during numerous peacekeeping deployments, and continues to contribute to the military's positive and responsible involvement in civil affairs. Returning Senegalese IMET graduates are immediately assigned to key leadership or staff positions, and their professional attributes make them well-suited to assume leadership positions in international military operations. Sustained support for a robust IMET program is a long-term investment in the future and directly supports long-term U.S. interests. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) provided by the DoS assists partner nations who otherwise lack the financial means to acquire U.S. military equipment and training. FMF has generally been allocated for and has become essential to long-term capacity building and sustainment. A lack of FMF funding or inconsistent year-to-year distribution can compromise long range objectives, turn our partners towards other sources, and inhibit peacekeeping operations. Senegal, for example, would not have been able to meet its Darfur commitment without ACOTA equipment and help from France. Mali and Niger receive ACOTA training, but cannot deploy due to a lack of equipment, and may be forced to stop their participation in ACOTA due to shortages. The poor condition and maintenance of the equipment of African militaries can even inhibit or prevent them from deploying for peacekeeping duties. Current FMF funding does not meet Africa's security requirements. FY08 FMF numbers currently total approximately $18M, of which $11.9M are going to Tunisia and Morocco--leaving under $6.5M for all of Sub-Saharan Africa. Whereas IMET provides the required professional military education, FMF provides the essential hardware necessary for putting IMET training to work for the greater good of Africa, and other regions where African peacekeepers serve. Both IMET and FMF are investments in long-term relationships, and must remain fully funded--for these and any other permissible uses of the funds--and even expanded where possible. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is a successful program directed at a source of misery and instability on the African continent--the HIV/AIDS pandemic. AFRICOM plans to support this effort by addressing, HIV/AIDS in the military context, thereby improving the readiness levels of African military units and increasing the number of forces that can be used for peacekeeping duties throughout Africa and elsewhere. Humanitarian Assistance (HA) Programs perform a dual purpose--not only do they improve security by reducing a cause of instability, but they affect perceptions and place the U.S. in a positive light--especially in areas susceptible to extremist ideologies. State and USAID carry out humanitarian programs across the continent to prevent and respond to humanitarian crises and for improved capacity for African nationals to prepare and respond. DoD has played a supporting role as well, and is expected to program $12.3M in FY 08 for Africa for projects such as providing medical care, building and furnishing schools and clinics, digging wells, providing clean water in rural and austere locations, and providing disaster relief. HA helps stabilize and secure regions, bolsters a country's capability to respond to disasters (thereby mitigating future USG involvement), provides training opportunities for US forces and serves as an example of what a professional military can accomplish. While the Defense HA budget is small compared to State and USAID which have primary responsibility in this regard, it has a disproportionate impact as a highly visible and positive engagement activity in support of our efforts to create an environment inhospitable to the influences of terrorism. Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) is a DoS program to train, equip, lift, and sustain peacekeepers that is planned and implemented in consultation with DoD. In Africa, GPOI funds enable the ACOTA program to provide training to meet UN peace operations standards. ACOTA is a crucial African engagement program and directly supports the U.S. national objectives of promoting stability, democratization, and military professionalism in Africa. It is important for AFRICOM to maintain close coordination with ACOTA, and we ask your help in ensuring that GPOI, and through it ACOTA, receives adequate funding so that sustainable African peace operations forces can be further developed and used to address peace keeping needs in Africa and elsewhere. Other forms of Cooperation: The National Guard State Partnership Program (SPP) continues to be an effective TSC program. By linking our states and territories with designated partner countries, we build long-term relationships, promote access, enhance military capabilities, improve interoperability, and advance responsible civil-military relations. The unique civil-military nature of the National Guard allows it to actively participate in a wide range of security cooperation activities. Seven countries in Africa currently have SPP partnerships, and we will continue to expand this program. The Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) is the DoD regional center that supports our efforts to counter ideological support for terrorism, harmonizes views on common security challenges, and promotes civil-military relations. The academic training conducted by ACSS for uniformed and civilian leaders from African nations and their regional organizations contributes immensely to professionalization and more effective security structures. These conferences and seminars help enhance policy understanding, enhance security communities and relationships, and improve sustainable institutional capacity to enhance national, regional, and international security. The effectiveness of ACSS could be further enhanced through increased funding. Maritime Domain Awareness initiatives are designed to assist partner nations to address numerous maritime challenges. The Horn of Africa, the Southwest Indian Ocean and Gulf of Guinea present complex maritime challenges such as criminal activity, piracy, environmental and fisheries violations, resource theft, arms smuggling, and narcotics and human trafficking. Projects such as Maritime Safety and Security Information System and Regional Maritime Awareness Capability Joint Capability Technology Demonstration demonstrate the capabilities of off-the-shelf surveillance technology in shared regional maritime awareness networks. These initiatives will help partner nations address their maritime safety and security challenges. PROGRESS TOWARDS ESTABLISHMENT AS A UNIFIED COMMAND Since 1983, the Unified Command Plan has divided Africa among three Combatant Commands: European Command (EUCOM); Central Command (CENTCOM); and Pacific Command (PACOM). AFRICOM's Area of Responsibility (AOR) will include the African continent and its island nations, with the exception of Egypt. Egypt will remain within CENTCOM's AOR, and AFRICOM and CENTCOM will have overlapping but distinctly different relationships with Egypt, which will be addressed under separate memoranda of agreement (MOAs). The primary AFRICOM mission will be to promote African security by building the capacity of partner nations and organizations. AFRICOM will assume existing missions or support roles from EUCOM, CENTCOM, PACOM, and other agencies to include: Operation ENDURING FREEDOM TRANS-SAHARA (OEF-TS), Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA), support to the GPOI's Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program, and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Gulf of Guinea. AFRICOM will maintain traditional military duties, to include execution of existing Africa-based contingency plans, implementing the African components of the Global War on Terror (GWOT), and other operations. In addition, AFRICOM will be prepared to conduct newly assigned missions and develop new initiatives within the AOR. We are aware of the significant stress placed on U.S. forces by combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The creation of AFRICOM acknowledges that, with relatively modest theater security cooperation and capacity building resources, much can be done to help prevent crises from occurring if those resources are applied in a sustained and consistent manner. AFRICOM, like all Unified Commands, will be capable of addressing any challenge presented in its AOR. Key Missions AFRICOM's first task is to complete the building of a team that will ensure a seamless transition of the missions, activities, programs, and exercises currently conducted by EUCOM, CENTCOM and PACOM. This includes responsibility for OEF-TS and CJTF-HOA--the two largest U.S. military operations in Africa. OEF-TS: OEF-TS is scheduled to transition to AFRICOM during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2008. AFRICOM will continue to work with DoS and the interagency to request and program the long-term resources and financing, specifically FMF credits, required to achieve our desired OEF-TS objectives and effects. CJTF-HOA: In our planning with CENTCOM, the intent is to transfer command and control, personnel, resources, security assistance offices, and legal authorities necessary for AFRICOM to assume responsibility for CJTF-HOA by September 30th, 2008. Mission Transfer and Staff Training AFRICOM is working with the other commands to develop Memoranda of Agreement to outline the details of the post-September 2008 support AFRICOM will require until its full capacity is realized and its components fully developed. We have also devised, in coordination with Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) and the JFCOM Joint Warfighting Center, a staff training and exercise program to facilitate AFRICOM's ability to accept missions. The rigors of this effort are designed to ensure mission transfer is based on measured, exercised, and reviewed methodology. Building the Interagency Team AFRICOM is structured with interagency relationships in mind. Incorporating interagency personnel into the command will boost DoD's ability to support security, stability, and humanitarian assistance efforts. Today, a DoS official fills the Command's Deputy to the Commander for Civil-Military Activities (DCMA) position, and a DoS official from the Bureau of African Affairs is the AFRICOM Foreign Policy Advisor. In addition, the Development and Humanitarian Assistance Advisor position, reporting directly to the DCMA, is filled by an official from USAID, and a U.S. Treasury official is working within AFRICOM's Strategy, Plans, and Programs Directorate (SPP). Soon SPP will also have an additional three Coast Guard officers from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). As we continue to build our interagency team, we intend to integrate personnel from across the interagency, to include the U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Agriculture, and Department of Energy. We are also seeking expertise from Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Customs and Border Protection, and the Transportation Security Administration. We are confident that a close partnership with DoS and other U.S. departments and agencies constitutes the best means for supporting U.S. foreign policy. As the Secretary of Defense remarked in a recent speech at Kansas State University, other Departments and Agencies also need to increase their capability and capacity to contribute to stabilization and reconstruction operations abroad. We encourage further U.S. expansion of these capabilities, and look forward to working with our interagency partners as they enhance their capability to project civilian skills, where needed. Increasing the ability of the USG, as a whole, to deal with both crises and day-to-day issues throughout our AOR will reduce the strain on our military forces and match the right expertise to the right task at hand. Congressional support for this broad approach is critical. With its broad applicability, Stabilization and Security assistance authority (Section 1207) has proven its value in Somalia, Yemen, and the Trans-Saharan region of Africa. Success here has shown the need for the type of authorities that allow DoD to transfer funds to DoS to provide assistance to aid police forces, improve governance, Rule of Law, economic development, and humanitarian assistance. A nation that maintains a professional military but lacks the capability to control domestic security and meet non-military stabilization needs cannot provide the conditions necessary to facilitate the economic development required to improve conditions. Broader, flexible authorities, including a long-term extension and expansion of 1207, will contribute to establishing stability and development. By bringing civilian security and stabilization efforts to bear early in these nations, we reduce the risk that US forces will be required to deploy there in the future. Component Commands AFRICOM continues to identify component support requirements, and is working with the Services to determine the best means for meeting these requirements. U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR) USAREUR is tasked by the Army to support AFRICOM as it moves towards assuming the responsibilities of a Unified Command. In this capacity, USAREUR will provide general support as the supporting Army Service Component Command for AFRICOM until a specific U.S. Army component is established. The U.S. Army component will not have any assigned forces other than selected capabilities required to support AFRICOM TSC operations. As currently envisioned, these capabilities would be limited to planning, directing, and providing oversight of operational intelligence, communications, and some operational sustainment support. As AFRICOM mission requirements are defined and solidified, a more robust capability may be necessary. U.S. Naval Forces, Europe (NAVEUR) The Navy has chosen to implement a single, dual-hatted Navy Component Command in support of both EUCOM and AFRICOM. Meeting the requirements of an AFRICOM in stand-up and a EUCOM in transition, while maintaining flexibility to adapt to a dynamic transfer of missions to AFRICOM, was the primary consideration in developing the Navy's course of action. This structure will be evaluated and adjusted as AFRICOM transitions to its status as a Unified Command. U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) USAFE is the lead agent for the Air Force in working with AFRICOM to develop the construct and missions for the AFRICOM Air Force component. USAFE will initially be in general support and will then exercise Administrative Control of the Air Force Component of AFRICOM, 17th Air Force (17th AF), after it is stood up. The concept consists of having 17th AF provide full spectrum Air Force capabilities to AFRICOM in support of partnership building, security cooperation, and mutual U.S.-African interests. Initial operational capability for 17th AF will be no later than September 30th, 2008, with its full operational capability to follow at a date to be determined. U.S. Marine Forces, Europe (MARFOREUR) Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF), as the United States Marine Corps Service component to AFRICOM, anticipates achieving full operational capability in early FY 2009, with a target date of October 1st, 2008. An initial small MARFORAF staff is in Stuttgart and currently embedded within the MARFOREUR staff. U.S. Special Operations Command, Europe (SOCEUR) Following the Presidential direction to establish AFRICOM, SOCEUR designated a transition team to plan and execute the establishment of AFRICOM's Theater Special Operations Command (SOCAFRICA). The transition team is working with Special Operations Command Pacific, Special Operations Command Central, SOCEUR, AFRICOM, EUCOM, and U.S. Special Operations Command, to determine requirements and obtain resources for SOCAFRICA. SOCAFRICA is projected to be fully operationally capable in March 2009 as a functional subordinate unified special operations command for Africa. THEATER INVESTMENT NEEDS

Enhancing AFRICOM's Mission Building partnership capacity provides the foundation for many of our strategic objectives. As we continue building the AFRICOM staff, we solicit your support not only for our own efforts, but for the development of the capabilities of other U.S. government departments and agencies whose civil expertise is critical to stabilization and capacity building missions overseas. While our traditional military experiences and background allows us to bring extensive mobility, logistics, and command and control capabilities to bear in support of USG efforts, we remain concerned that, if interagency capabilities are not better resourced, non-traditional tasks will, out of necessity, default to military elements. A holistic approach to Africa's problems and challenges is, with AFRICOM in support, the best way to further U.S., international, and partner nation interests. However, building regional stability and security will take many years of sustained and dedicated effort. There is no conspicuous finish line. Therefore, enduring Congressional support is indispensable. The key area where legislative assistance would improve AFRICOM's capability to work in partnership with other USG departments and agencies is as follows: Provide budgetary flexibility to Combatant Commanders and Ambassadors, including making Section 1206 Global Train and Equip authority permanent and expanding it to meet the demand State and DoD have seen over the past three years; Combatant Command Budgetary Authority Flexibility is essential to maximize Combatant Command responsiveness and agility in confronting the constantly changing geostrategic landscape in which we operate. Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act to Build the Capacity of Foreign Military Forces has proven its worth when it comes to responding to emergent security challenges by rapidly building and enhancing the military capacity of key allies and partners. Africa's unique challenges in the arena of security for the individual citizen (personal security), coupled with our strategy of Active Security, make the extension and expansion of these authorities a tool of the utmost importance. Making the train and equip authority permanent, increasing the ceiling, and establishing an annual baseline appropriation will help prevent problems from becoming crises by providing the flexibility needed to respond rapidly to challenges within our AOR. This authority is a vital element of the GWOT. We support the Secretary of State's request for a Civilian Response Force, and also strongly support the significant increase in the number of people that DoS and USAID are seeking in the President's 2009 budget. We also support an increase in foreign assistance funding. These measures contribute to a greater ability to achieve U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives without committing U.S. forces. Command Stationing Command presence is an important issue, but is not a matter of urgency. With this in mind, we have established our initial operating facilities for the Headquarters (HQ) in Stuttgart Germany, with the intent to focus first on how we can best serve the objectives of the Command and the needs of the AOR. In the near term, AFRICOM will focus on working with our Embassies, Country Teams, and Offices of Defense Cooperation to strengthen existing bilateral military-to-military relationships. AFRICOM presence will be determined by the benefits, improvements, and enhancements we can bring to programs that serve the interests of our African partners, the USG, and the international community. AFRICOM's efforts and presence on the continent will reflect coordination with the Department of State, the desires of our African partners, and consistency with U.S. foreign policy objectives. Theater Infrastructure Camp Lemonnier is the enduring primary support location for the Horn of Africa region. It is part of CJTF-HOA and currently rests in the CENTCOM AOR, and will transition into AFRICOM's TSC blueprint. As AFRICOM matures, Camp Lemonnier will transition to supporting long-term TSC efforts and establishing strong and enduring regional relationships. Camp Lemonnier will be a part of supporting and developing regional African capability and capacity; thus, its funding support must continue. Camp Lemonnier and CJTF-HOA operations have largely been resourced from the GWOT emergency supplemental appropriations to establish expeditionary infrastructure and rapidly achieve operational needs. However, we envision Camp Lemonnier as an enduring forward operating site (FOS) in the AFRICOM AOR. Its current and programmed projects are an integral part of the Camp's installation master plan and are required to support existing and projected mission sets. The FOS at Camp Lemonnier and any other access needs in the region will be included in AFRICOM's 2009 Master Plan. A CSL is a host-nation facility with little or no permanent U.S. personnel present. It may contain pre-positioned equipment or provide for pre-coordinated logistical arrangements. The CSL may be used to support security cooperation activities or provide access during a contingency. The current EUCOM master plan identifies designated Africa CSLs--some of which have recently been used in support of OEF-TS. The establishment of AFRICOM provides an opportunity to conduct a fresh assessment in the context of AFRICOM's mission and determine the CSL arrangements needed to meet theater security cooperation and humanitarian assistance engagement needs across the African continent. Pending the completion of this assessment, Africa CSLs in EUCOM's current (FY2009) master plan remain in AFRICOM's plan. Strategic and Tactical Mobility Our ability to conduct TSC and other activities on the African continent is directly tied to mobility. Vast distances, combined with very limited civilian rail, road, and air transportation infrastructure, constrain the full range of AFRICOM engagement and contingency activities. There is limited intra-theater commercial airlift, and EUCOM's current fleet of C-130s does not possess the range or capacity to support rapid movements throughout AFRICOM's AOR. While African airlines account for only four percent of world travel, they experience 25 percent of the world's air disasters. The expanse of the African continent, coupled with limited commercial airlift availability, requires military airlift to ensure mission success. In cooperation with other DoD organizations, AFRICOM is conducting an analysis to identify the requirements for military aircraft. In the long-term, the U.S. must encourage the improvement of civilian transportation infrastructure and its security across the African continent, but the near term requires an increase in the quantity and capacity of military air and rapid sealift platforms made available to AFRICOM. Pre-Positioned Equipment Continued support of the Services' Pre-positioned War Reserve Materiel (PWRM) programs demonstrates commitment through presence and provides a broad spectrum of traditional crisis response and irregular warfare options globally. With AFRICOM missions supporting State and USAID capacity building and humanitarian assistance, this will require the Services to re-assess the PWRM equipment sets that are strategically located in our region. Disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, and capacity building equipment and supplies are very different from traditional PWRM sets. AFRICOM is actively involved in DoD-led studies examining the global disposition of PWRM and is working to ensure our strategic direction and operational requirements are incorporated in the study reviews and ultimately in an overarching DoD PWRM strategy. Quality of Life (QoL) Programs Already designed as an enduring location, the Stuttgart area is a superb location to stand up the Command. While the influx of new personnel will initially strain some facilities, overall quality of life is excellent, and AFRICOM remains relatively close to, and within the same approximate time zones as, the African continent. Additionally, the EUCOM staff is nearby, which eases the challenges associated with the mission transfer process and ensures overall mission continuity. Quality of Life (QoL) construction investments affirm our commitment to AFRICOM's team members and their families. We support EUCOM's Family Housing renovation and replacement projects and unaccompanied personnel facilities, which will ensure that our personnel are afforded quality housing and barracks. Investment in medical facilities ensures that our people and their families receive first-rate medical care comparable to that provided in CONUS. Support for facility improvements in the Stuttgart will ensure that the AFRICOM team receives the required support while not overtaxing the community's current QoL foundation. The quality of the Department's dependent education programs is a major contributor to the QoL for the AFRICOM team. Continued investment in our Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools provides high quality education facilities for dependents. AFRICOM is committed to partnering with DoDEA and Department of Defense Dependents Schools (Europe) to provide the children of our military personnel, civilians, and contractors quality educational opportunities. We endorse the DoDEA Master Plan initiatives to increase the capacity of the Panzer elementary and middle schools, and to construct a new Stuttgart community high school. CONCLUSION AFRICOM represents an exciting and new approach to DoD's long-term commitment to strengthening ties with Africa, as well as a new operating approach within DoD itself. This Command's design constitutes the implementation of a new concept that can better address the complex challenges of the 21st century. AFRICOM is a work-in-progress. We are a listening, growing, and developing organization dedicated to partnering with African governments, African security organizations, and the international community to help the people of Africa achieve the goals they have set for themselves. We will enable the work of Africans through preventative, sustained, and persistent engagement, and thereby support U.S. security and foreign policy objectives. The Command will continue to build its interagency team. Our focus is on adding value to our African engagement efforts, while ensuring that we neither disrupt nor confuse current and ongoing USG or international efforts. This command exists to support U.S. foreign policy objectives in Africa. Your support, not only for AFRICOM but to our interagency partners, is critical to our ability to provide and improve the quality of what we as a team can accomplish. You can help modernize our nation's approach to national security by supporting the development of other USG departments' and agencies' ability to project their unique expertise in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. This is critical, and will assist in our collective effort to prevent disputes, poverty, and instability from leading to extremism, violence, and armed conflict, thereby better protecting U.S. interests and the American people. It is my honor to serve with the uniformed men and women as well as our interagency partners and civilians who are making this new Command a reality. Your sustained support will allow their good work to continue in service of their country.